ARST 5000 Fall 2017 Week 3
Image source: joshuafkitchens

Table of Contents


  • O’Toole, James M., and Richard J. Cox. Chapter 2. “The History of Archives and the Archives Profession” in Understanding Archives and Manuscripts (Society of American Archivists, 2006), p. 45-86.
  • Hirtle, Peter B. “Archival Authenticity in a Digital Age” in Authenticity in a Digital Environment (Council on Library and Information Resources, 2000). article
  • Duranti, Luciana. “Historical Documentary Memory in the Cloud: An Oxymoron or the Inescapable Future.” Read pp. 1-11. GA View.
  • Theimer, Kate. “Archives in Context and as Context.” Journal of Digital Humanities 1:2 (Spring 2012). Article
    • Adoption of the term by info tech
    • There’s value in the archival use of the term archives due to contextual relationship among records
  • Lubar, Steven. “Information Culture and the Archival Record,” American Archivist 62:1 (Spring 1999), p. 10-22.
    • Annotated Article - Private
    • “Archivist take meaning for granted” materials we deal with have intentionality to them
    • Archives are active sites of power 15
    • Context is key (metadata)
  • Tom Nesmith (2002) Seeing Archives: Postmodernism and the Changing Intellectual Place of Archives. The American Archivist: Spring/Summer, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 24-41.
  • Wilkinson, Tracy. “Gunmen Torch Vital Records of Rights Group in El Salvador.” LA Times (14 November 2013).,0,5788558.story#axzz2l0clGNQM
  • “Do We Need a Better Archive of the Internet?”
  • Archival Edge Revisited


Assignment Overview

What is a Record

  • ask the class to provide a definition of what a record is?
  • Make reference to the image of the

What is an Archive

  • Ask class about their thoughts
  • Bring up several of the readings

Cultural Memory institutions

  • Explain why you use this term
  • Ask roughly what each type does
  • Define the term memory as it relates to records

What they do

  • Explain why you see their purpose as broken into a 3 part process.


Museum Overview

  • Ask what an artifact might be. Look for examples from the class
  • Mention what preservation might look like in a museum
  • Discuss access in basic terms. Ask the class about their museum experiences

Museum History

  • Brief overview of the history emphasis victorian period
  • Started more as art with the Ashmolean Museum at oxford. Many had teaching missions early on then come some of the American versions.
  • Discuss Barnum and Peale (For profit)


  • explain the types briefly and how each is different.
  • Science museums are specifically very different and don’t always permeant collections


  • Explain how provenance works in this case
  • Discuss rarity and uniqueness
  • For access discuss mediated access


  • Explain what you mean about information. Consider including DATA as well in this discussion
  • Preserve is a tough word here.
  • unfiltered


  • Run through this quickly. Public access is a new concept tied to American victorian period and progressive era.


  • Explain types
  • Hint a rare book libraries and how they don’t fit the model as much as traditional libraries.
  • You could discuss the change in how libraries operate.


  • Emphasis that the original isn’t important except for rare books
  • Intrinsic attributes don’t relate to the collection development practices
  • Emphasis how librarians typically don’t restrict access.


  • Prompt the students with these questions and steer the conversation based on some of the comments from the discussion board
  • Present the definition of a record again if need be.
  • Talk about how the archivist provides access in some way.
  • Make a joke about the next slide….

Brief history

  • Discuss how sumerian cones were centrally stored
  • Bring up the Archon and Metroon of the ancient world and how these were sites of government records.
  • Hidden collections belonging to the state where documents had power to dictate obligations but there was no access.
  • Transition to french revolution with was all about access to gov records of obligations.
  • Formation of national archives, state archives and US archives in 1930’s

Archives Defined

  • SAA definition
  • Ask about major parts
  • Explain broken down into parts, Go through slides and describe different images used to illustrate the aspects of the definition.
  • For types discuss how they are different from each other.

Manuscript V Archives

  • Explain archival history here
  • Talk about pathways to archives

Discussion board question

  • talk about issue you have with video game archives, crash bandicoot remaster as example
  • Fit archives is probably closer to an archive in some respects than play, explain how this relates to how collections are perceived and understood.


  • Deal with digital collections
  • Scare with OASIS model


  • Have end of class discussion
ARST 5000 Week 2 Class Notes Fall 2017
Image source: joshuafkitchens

Table of Contents


  • Define ‘record’ and discuss how it changes in different contexts
  • Describe the characteristics of records in terms of carrier and content, including media, signal, encoding, and structure (protocol, exposition, eschatocol)
  • List common genres, including report, form, certificate, correspondence, diaries, fiction, books
  • Distinguish and discuss primary and secondary sources, (published v. unpublished; unique v. original)


  • Roberts, Jennifer L. “The Power of Patience.” Harvard Magazine (July-August 2014).
  • O’Toole, James M. “On the Idea of Permanence,” AA 52:1 (Winter 1989), p. 10-25.
  • “Record” in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology (Society of American Archivists, 2005).
  • Levy, David M. “What are Documents?” in Scrolling Forward: Making Sense of Documents in the Digital Age (Arcade, 2001).
  • Yeo, Geoffrey. “Concepts of Record (1): Evidence, Information, and Persistent Representations.” in American Archivist 70 (Fall/Winter 2007), p. 315-343.
  • Beyond The Hashtag
    • PDF -



  • go over major issues, ask for questions about the readings.
  • Mention the article on patience


  • First paper due next week Review of Green Article
  • Assignment 1 Due Sept 4, short paper
  • Emphasis discussion boards

Brief History of Recorded Information

  • Discuss oral tradition as the earliest. Some groups who still practice this use a peer review system to keep the tradition going. The issue of human failing (cite urban legends)
  • Writing Systems
  • Machine
    • Age of the printer and type writer.
    • Reduced forgery to some extent. Could create more authentic records
  • Digital Assisted
    • Ease of change, but authenticity has been reduced. “fake news”


  • For these two questions prompt students about how humans desire to find a method to remember things. Some of these are culturally significant, some are related obligations
  • Differences can relate to social needs and the nature of the process used to record the information.

Common Attributes

  • These are basically self explanatory. Consider referencing O’toole at this point
    • Mention briefly the idea of permanence of information.
    • Ask is permanence really possible? O’Toole would say probably not. More later


Knowledge Hierarchy

  • Data also known as signal especially in electronic records
  • Information is inferring things from data, could be metadata, contextual information, or organization of data
  • Knowledge is information analyzed
  • Expertise is gained from understand knowledge from various forms.

Define a Record Personally

  • Consider taking notes for the group.
  • What records you as a person?
  • What records your family?
  • What records groups that you associate with?


Federal Definition

  • hit main parts
    • Explain it in the next slide
  • Read GA definition of a record
  • ‘Public record’ means all documents, papers, letters, maps, books, tapes, photographs, computer based or generated information, data, data fields, or similar material prepared and maintained or received by an agency or by a private person or entity in the performance of a service or function for or on behalf of an agency or when such documents have been transferred to a private person or entity by an agency for storage or future governmental use. 50-18-70.

SAA Glossary Definitions

  • Draw attention to the fixed form… Reference O’toole


  • Explain diplomatics at this point
  • Define Content, Context and Structure, Affordances
    • Quality that provides a particular benefit in a given context
    • Paper?
    • Digital?


  • Elvis
  • Content, Context, Structure Dec 21, 1971
  • Twitter


  • this vexed everyone on the discussion board a bit
  • Beyond the primary source


  • how does this compared to yeo

Document V Record

  • Documents are often transient and have not context
  • Records have quality that makes them useful for a period of time. There is context and structure


  • Stability Relates to proving authenticity


  • demonstrates that something did or didn’t happen given a specific point of view


  • Schellenburg values

So why all of these definitions

  • Situations mean we have to examine records differently depending upon how we are trying to archive subjects/etc

Is this a record and Case Studies

On the idea of Permanence

  • What is permanent?
  • How does the transition from oral to written culture affect the idea of permanence? How has the transition to digital affected it?
  • We discussed how values are separate from recordness? Should the concept of permanence playing this discussion
  • How should we think about knowledge that requires patience to understand in relationship to records?

Beyond the Hashtag

  • In light of this reading, do you see the value of social media as a record differently?
  • Thinking about how social media is created, does this pose a problem for working with these ”records”

Levy, David M. “What are Documents?” in Scrolling Forward: Making Sense of Documents in the Digital Age (Arcade, 2001).

  • If documents are surrogates of ourselves, what are records?
  • What aspects of documents should we focus on?

Concepts of Record 1

  • So what are records?
  • What did you think of the representational view of records?
  • Does that fit with the definition we discussed in class?
  • Did you get Yeo’s positivist view of definition? Do you skew more post-modern?
Presentation to CIMS Advisor Board on MAS Program
Image source: joshuafkitchens



Points to Cover

  • Program Overview
  • Student Preparation
  • Market and Business Case
  • Going Forward
    • Undergraduate Program
    • Graduate Certificates

Program Overview

  • Traditional Theory and Practice Meet Electronic Records
  • Discuss how we ground our program in traditional archival and records management practice but connect those ideas to modern digital records.

From Pages to Petabytes**

  • 36 credit hours
    • Similar to other programs and designed for those who work and are career focused
  • Exclusively online
    • Courses are real time and ascyn
    • Explain how this helps the students learn
  • Pedagogy focuses on Practical Experiences
    • Case Studies and hands on activities
    • Working students are encouraged to use their organizations for class assignments

Student Preparation

Mention RM and Archival careers

  • Thinking systematically, holistically about the archival enterprise
    • Practical Education and assignments that focus on practice
    • Connection to Academy of Certified archivist exam
    • emphasis on digital prepares students for new challenges with records.
  • Strategic planning and actively implementing tactics to goals
    • Emphasis on planning and assessment of the archival endeavor
  • Use of professional judgment in the practical application of theory and principles.
    • Critical thinking
    • Acknowledge that theory doesn’t always work in reality and learning how to deal with reality


  • Business
    • ARChives and RM (Sun Trust and Chick-a-fila)
  • Cultural Memory Institutions
    • Troup County, Emory, Kennesaw
  • Governmental Agencies and Organizations

Job Market

  • 7% growing for archivist
  • 8% growth for records managers

Business and MAS

Archives and Records Management help organizations demonstrate their company values and commitments to their customers, share holder, and other publics.

  • Talk about what organizations attempt to do. Use sustainability as an example of how businesses can use RM and archives
  • Intellectual property management

Business Need and Case

Growing need for information professionals who understand the creation, use and disposition of electronic records.

  • Information professional understand records, their creation and how to manage them efficiently and effectively
  • Understand the value of records and how that value helps the organizations they work with

Going Forward

  • Undergraduate Programs
    • Archives and Records Management Minors (jobs case for RM)
  • Graduate Certificates (Attract students who don’t want or need a full Master degree)
    • Records Management
    • Digital Archives


CIMS Board Meeting Prep Notes

ARST 5170 Week 13 Digital Humanities
Image source: joshuafkitchens


  • Describe the field of digital humanities and its relationship with archives
  • Describe the use of science resources and archives


  • Patrik Svensson, “The Landscape of Digital Humanities,” Digital Humanities Quarterly 4:1 (2010)
  • Miriam Posner, “What Are Some Challenges to Doing DH in the Library?,”
  • Kate Theimer, “Archives in Context and as Context,” Journal of Digital Humanities 1:2 (Spring 2012)
  • Tracey P. Lauriault et. al., “Today’s Data are Part of Tomorrow’s Research: Archival Issues in the Sciences,” Archivaria 64 (Fall 2007): 123-179.
  • Barbara Losoff, Caroline Sinkinson, and Elizabeth Newsom, “Special Collections Instruction in the Sciences: A Collaborative Model” in Past or Portal? Enhancing Undergraduate Learning through Special Collections and Archives by Eleanor Mitchell, Peggy Seiden, and Suzy Taroba eds. (Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries, 2012): 137-141.


Digital Humanities Defined

  • Explain definition, which is a modified version of from google. 1.
  • It’s as much about tools for research as is it is about presentation of research.
  • Ask about what the different needs for researchers would be for a digital only project?

The Landscape of Digital Humanities

  • Array of convergent practices
    • Print isn’t the end for research
      • Discuss methods for dissemination that could be possible. (Slave public history youtube)
    • Digital media has changed the way information is shared and consumed
      • How is info consumed now?
    • Tech can be studied as an object of research
      • what might be some ways to view tech as an object.

Tech as an Object of Research

“The digital may not have to be the main focus itself, but rather phenomena, cultural artifacts and processes that are digitally inflected”

  • what does the tech object mean for the researcher?
  • How can archives handle researching technical experiences?

As tool:

  • Some instrumental uses of digital technology in humanities contexts introduce an exploratory methodology, where the researcher or student is encouraged to explore materials, datasets or issues in an experimental fashion.
  • Dynamic visualization can offer a window to large data sets and possibilities to visualize or enact complex objects of analysis.
  • Interactive tools can help the researcher to get an intuitive sense of objects of analysis and the model, and allow fast what-if analyses.
  • On a more profound level, researcher interaction can change the models themselves, or their parameters, data and relations to allow the study of hypothetical correlations or comparison of outcomes from different models applied on the same object or situations.

Note: Get example tools for next class


What is the role of an academic libraries/Digital Humanities Centers?

  • Builds digital collections as scholarly or teaching resources,
  • Creates tools for authoring, building digital collections, analyzing collections, data or research processes, managing the research process,
  • Uses digital collections and analytical tools to generate new intellectual products,
  • Offers digital humanities training,
  • Offers lectures, programs, conferences or seminars on digital humanities topics,
  • Has its own academic appointments and staffing,
  • Provides collegial support for and collaboration with members of other academic departments at the home institution,
  • Provides collegial support for and collaboration with members of other academic departments, organizations or projects outside the home institution,
  • Conducts research in humanities and humanities computing (digital scholarship),
  • Creates a zone of experimentation and innovation for humanists,
  • Serves as an information portal for a particular humanities discipline,
  • Serves as a repository for humanities-based digital collections, and
  • Provides technology solutions to humanities departments

What’s the role of the archives outside of the archives?

  • greater access and dissemination
  • Posner:
    • DH was being done in the library (and in the archive) well before it made its way into academic departments
    • Many DH projects don’t meet any particular demonstrated need — they’re done to find an interesting answer to an interesting question

Archives in Context and As Context

  • “What concerns me“ is that in the broadening of “archives” to extend to any digital collection of surrogates there is the potential for a loss of understanding and appreciation of the historical context that archives preserve in their collections, and the unique role that archives play as custodians of materials in this context
  • What defines the work of an archivist, and so “an archives” in the mind of an archivist, is what materials are selected and how they are managed, provenance, and value
    • What is an archives for a digital humanities person?

Examples of Digital Humanities Projects

  • ATL Maps GSU
  • Stanford University Republic of Letters,
  • Use google to find more in class

Scientific Data

  • Data Portals etc
    • Much but not all of the data derived from portals are raw in nature and require the user to interpret, analyze, and/or manipulate them. The reasons for their creation are one-stop shopping, distributed responsibility over data sets, discoverability, and reduction in cost, since data are stored once and used many times
  • Preservation issues and access issues
    • The problem of preserving authentic and reliable digital data and records for the near and longer terms is not unique to the sciences.
    • It faces everyone who now or in the future will require research data, legal documents, and administrative records to conduct their business, because more and more material is being created only in a digital form and will be communicated, stored, and accessed only in digital systems
  • Metadata are essential for the dissemination of scientific data
    • Archiving of scientific and geomatics data is technologically complex; however, the greatest obstacles are not technology, techniques, or know-how. The greatest obstacles are the lack of institutional will and the financial resources needed to implement what is already known, and to finance research on unresolved issues
  • Scientists need metadata to make fit-for-use decisions and, within metadata, they need respect for specific data quality parameters that relate to accuracy, reliability, and authenticity

RIM 101 Workshops
Image source: joshuafkitchens

Records Retention Scheduling - The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly

Ron Shaddix


  • understand basic parts of retention scheduling (Workable, creditable, and successful retention schedule)
    • Policy
    • Culture
    • Regs
    • Ideas
    • Style
    • Concepts

What is a Retention Schedule

  • policy that identifies types of records created and maintained at the organization
  • Discusses how long records should be kept
  • Must be formally created and approved
  • Foundation of a RIM program

Generally Accepted Record Keeping Principles

  • ARMA Definition and Principles (gives standard of retention)

Anatomy of a Retention Schedule

  • Record type and Id number
  • Purpose of the Record
  • Brief description of the record
  • Event that starts the retention period
    • (CY Current Year, C closed, TER terminated, FY fiscal year, S superseded)
  • Time Period for disposition
  • Approval and revised date

How to Create

  • Two Approaches
    • Classic [Department based]
    • Functional (Functional analysis or big bucket)
  • Survey record
    • Identify hardcopy and electronic records
  • Talk to managers and office workers
  • Identify internal record keeping requirements
  • identify rules and regulations
  • Determine the value of records and put into retention time frames

Approval Process

  • physically talk to peoplee


Ugly Schedules

  • No policy
  • No direction
  • Generic titles and examples
  • Outdated

Bad Schedules

  • formatted in some way database or
  • not follow
  • not fully comprehensive

Good Retention schedule

  • Generated in a RRS software
  • Built in federal and state laws
  • formatted in a professional way


  • Iron MT, etc
  • Quotes, trails, etc

Iron Mountain

James McCulloch

About Iron MT

  • 46 Countries
  • 1,400 record center (8.4 million stored in Atlanta)
  • Services
    • Vault Storage
    • Info Governance
    • Automated workflow
    • Auditing
    • Information management Services
    • Record Disposition
    • Data Management

Business Value from RIM

  • Space Maker
  • Program Accelerator (Consistency company-wide)
  • Vendor Consolidator
  • Records Reducer (Reduce legacy storage)
  • Unifier (Apply policy everywhere)
    • 35,000 laws governing records
    • 10 -15 % change each year
  • Digitizer (Remove Paper from workflow)



What is Communication

  • Defined
    • Understanding audience and effectively communicating.

Analysis of communication

  • Boston Matrix (receptive audience)

Segment by receptiveness

  • Star (noobs but are curious and need support)
  • Problem Children (need prodding and pushing)
  • Cash Cow (Engaged, willing, need more info)
  • Dog (ignore message, but maybe influenced by situations)

Focus Your Attention

  • innovators or influences (advertisers, encourage others)
  • early adopter or sneezers (infecting others with program, sales person)
  • Late Majority/Biggest Results (want to do it, but don’t have time initially)
  • Laggards (require an influencer to pus them often)

Planning and Strategy

Where to start thinking from

  • Push Strategies (change thoughts and behaviors)
    • take product to customer
    • communicating the value propistion
    • Where do you want to be in X period? (end goals)
  • Create a good program of communication
    • Audience (tailor to audience)
    • Accomplishments and Goals of program
    • Timing
    • Observations

Messaging and Channels

  • Audiences
    • Why nots?
    • Think about who they are make messaging appropriate
  • Channels
    • Visual
    • Verbal
    • Written

Defining Succes

  • Metrics (affecting attitudes and behaviors)

Linda Muller

What is IST

  • 20 years, vendor at various events, and speaking
  • Products
    • Current state assessment
    • Consultancy
    • outsource RIM Services
    • RIM Technologies
    • Paper record tracking system and other software

Basics of Electronic Records

Joshua Kitchens

Risk Assessment and Migration

Debra Hock

What Kind of Risks

  • Many


  • types
  • Policie

Risk Analysis = Risk Assessment

  • Where is risk

Risk Management

  • minimize, monitor and control risk

Threats and Vulnerabilities

  • People
    • warfare, terrorism
    • Vandalism by employees
    • Politics
    • Mitigation
      • background checks
      • Specific roles in Electronic systems (triggers)
      • Change passwords
      • Document Procedures and follows
  • Accidental Destruction
    • Types
      • Weather
      • earthquakes
      • fires
      • explosion/ hazdarous materials
      • volcanic eruptions
      • power plants
      • military bases proximity
      • laboratories
    • Mitigation
      • Geographical moves
      • Easy access
      • Location of emergency services
      • understand consequences
  • Carelessness/neglect
    • Types
      • handling of paper
      • Storage of electronic
      • mislabeled media
      • careless procedures
    • Mitigation
      • procedures on handling, labeling and exposure
  • Misfiled records
    • types
      • all formats
      • e-records moved to wrong places
      • data errors
      • file drawers
    • Mitigation
      • checks and balances
      • quality and control
      • Audit inventories
  • Stolen Information
    • Types
      • PII
      • HIPPA
      • Trade Secrets
      • Pricing/Marketing
    • mitigation
      • appropriate level of access
      • Proper security
  • Computer and Electronic records
    • Types
      • Aged equipment
      • software, viruses, etc
      • deletion, editing, etc
      • routing info incorrectly
      • Unauthorized Access
    • Mitigation
      • migration of legacy systems
      • work with IT
      • awareness of

Policies and Procedures

  • a good retention schedule
  • Storage procedures
  • program policy and procedures
  • Electronic policy and procedures (legal holds. Imaging of computers)


Business Continuity Plan

  • Primary Contact
  • Alternate Contract
  • Define Purpose and scope
  • Assumptions
  • Objectives
  • Call Lists
  • Recovery Team
  • Recovery Requirements